from Vecchi, et al.

What Can the FBI Teach Us About Behavior Design?

The FBI Hostage Negotiation Team developed a five step Behavior Change Stairway Model to assist in negotiation with sometimes violent felons. But these same techniques can be used in any number of more peaceful situations.

Behavioral Change Stairway Model
  1. Active Listening
  2. Empathy
  3. Rapport
  4. Influence
  5. Behavioral Change

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Most critical step is Active Listening:
  1. Ask open-ended questions
  2. Effective pauses (remain silent at the right times)
  3. Minimal encouragers (brief statements like yes and okay that let them know you are listening)
  4. Mirroring (repeat the last word or two they say)
  5. Paraphrasing (repeat what they said in your own words)
  6. Emotional labeling (give their feelings a name)

The model came out of this paper, which contains some deeper insights.

Behavior Continuum:

from Vecchi, et al.

from Vecchi, et al.