Methodology

Game Design

 

MDA: A Formal Approach to Game Design and Game Research

This seminal game design paper by Robin Hunicke, Marc LeBlanc, Robert Zubek lays out MDA as a formal approach to understanding games.

  • Mechanics (the particular components and rules of a game)
  • Dynamics (what happens when the Mechanics of a game are interacted with by players)
  • Aesthetics (the emotional responses evoked by a player when they encounter the Dynamics)

MDAO:

This book chapter by Heather Browning expands the MDA Model for use in creating games for effective clinical interventions. But it is quite useful anywhere that we need to design and create something for a particular outcome.

  • Mechanics (the particular components and rules of a game)
  • Dynamics (what happens when the Mechanics of a game are interacted with by players)
  • Aesthetics (the emotional responses evoked by a player when they encounter the Dynamics)
  • Outcomes (the desired consequence brought about by a player when they feel the Aesthetics)

MDAO Sketchnote by Stanford LDT Masters student Lauren Beaton.

(this excellent MDAO sketchnote is from Lauren Beaton)

 

Behavior Design

 

Dr. BJ Fogg’s Behavior Model

  • Motivation
  • Ability
  • Trigger

Creating Persuasive Technologies: An Eight-Step Design Process (Dr. BJ Fogg)

  • Choose a simple behavior to target
  • Choose a receptive audience
  • Find what prevents the target behavior
  • Choose a familiar technology channel
  • Find relevant examples of persuasive technology
  • Imitate successful examples
  • Test and iterate quickly
  • Expand on success

Neuroscience

 

Chemicals that effect our brains

  • Dopamine
  • Epinephrine
  • Norepinephrine
  • Oxytocin
  • Serotonin

Emotional Design (Falcao, Soares, et al.)

  • Visceral Design
  • Behavior Design
  • Reflective Design